Keynesian economics is a school of thought based on the ideas of Cambridge macroeconomist John Maynard Keynes. His thinking was formed during the Great Depression and was heavily influenced by that event. His approach is considered a “demand-side” theory, and he argued the flagging aggregate demand drives economic recessions.
Keynesian economics challenges the long-held belief that free markets will always self-regulate, and they make the case for stimulating economies in recessions by cutting taxes and increasing government spending to ramp up demand.
A kicker is a feature added to a debt instrument. It is typically an incentive or a right and is a feature that makes a debt instrument more attractive to interested investors. In real estate, the kicker is an added expense paid on a mortgage - an additional element that allows the loan to be approved. For example, a kicker could be a percentage of the profits made from renting a property or a stake in a retail property’s revenue.
In the financial sector, a kicker is an incentive that makes purchasing debt securities more enticing. For example, an equity kicker is an equity position in the debtor’s listed company that is offered to the lender in exchange for more favourable conditions for the credit’s interest rate.
A knock-out option is an option with a built-in mechanism to expire worthless if a specified price level in the underlying asset is reached. A knock-out option sets a cap on the level an option can reach in the holder's favor. As knock-out options limit the profit potential for the option buyer, they can be purchased for a smaller premium than an equivalent option without a knock-out stipulation.
The knowledge economy refers to the production and consumption of scientific assets, i.e., the capitalisation or monetisation of intellectual capital.
It is an economy that depends mostly on immaterial goods, which are therefore intangible, e.g., a new cutting-edge technology or a scientific discovery.
In the modern capitalist economy, the value of the production process is becoming less and less relevant, while the importance of skills and human capital is growing. This is a typical phenomenon of more developed and advanced economies, characterised by a shift from low-skilled jobs to highly specialised professions, especially in the field of computerisation and technology.
Korea Stock Exchange (KSC)
The Korea Stock Exchange is a division of the Korea Exchange, which is the sole market for trading securities in Korea. US investors can participate in the Korea Stock Exchange through exchange-traded funds, which are index-based portfolios of stocks that track South Korean market segments.
The KSC started as a separate entity in 1956 and merged with the Korea Exchange in 2005. In 2018, it had a combined market capitalisation of $1.9 trillion. It is headquartered in Busan, South Korea’s second-largest city.